features of poetic language

Now o… It’s not overstating the case to say that poetry is a part of language itself and that poems are merely the most concentrated expressions of language’s inherent poetry. 3) She turned away and looked out the window. Modernism and After, the Twentieth Century, Poet, Alice Fogel reads Robert Bly’s “Seeing the Eclipse in Maine.”, https://pressbooks.com/app/uploads/sites/118463/2019/09/Bly-Eclipse.m4a, Alice B. Fogel, former New Hampshire state Poet Laureate, reads Maxine Kumin’s “After Love.”, https://pressbooks.com/app/uploads/sites/118463/2019/09/Kumin-After-Love.m4a, Alice B. Fogel, former New Hampshire state Poet Laureate, reads John Donne’s ” A Valediction Forbidding Mourning.”, https://pressbooks.com/app/uploads/sites/118463/2019/09/Donne-Valediction.m4a, Alice Fogel, former New Hampshire state Poet Laureate, reads her poem, “Morning Glory.”, https://pressbooks.com/app/uploads/sites/118463/2019/09/Fogel-Morning-Glory.m4a. that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the face of the earth. We did not explain how poems use language to do things. ), Maxine Kumin, “After Love” (Links to an external site. But that will be enough for now. How does the technique affect the rhythm of the piece? And yet poems don’t usually feel like everyday language. Repeating the same or nearly the same words for effect. We use this sort of language all the time, usually without knowing we are doing so. (MACRO i.e. And if that’s what I want to do, the figurative language does it better—more directly. What links are there between the title and the ending? From what happened in the middle – what ideas did I get? This means that you can never absolutely guarantee that any statement, no matter how literal it seems, is not also figurative. Why not? This too we mentioned above: understatement. poetic definition: 1. like or relating to poetry or poets: 2. very beautiful or expressing emotion: 3. like or…. Poetic language is the language most often (but not exclusively) used in poetry. In addition to the above, personification makes inanimate objects seem lively and lifelike while it also contributes to our sense of oneness with these inanimate objects. Figurative language then, as it is usually understood, is language that takes a kind of roundabout path to its meaning. It gives us a feeling of completion. We speak a language so that we can communicate with others. Slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap, I may want to use a sword to symbolize the sexual prowess of a knight, but since a sword is also associated with knights, it may also be said to be a metonymy. But they still don’t do anything that we don’t already do every day when we speak. correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words, especially when these are used at the ends of lines of poetry. This is where the first letter of a word is repeated in words that follow. Structure. Makes small sections of the text hang together and flow better. Well, I was sure was brassed off when he walked out on me.”. Identify what is literally happening in the title, the beginning, the middle and the end. The “catness” of fog is however far less obvious than the fearful power of blacksmith/God is to a tiger or the mother to child relationship of an author for her book. or walk inside the poem’s room like a color slide. How does the use of that technique in that spot impact the meaning or message of the text as a whole?). What was the writer trying to achieve? The president is called the president, and the ocean is called the ocean. Makes the character come alive. The second is to understand how these figures are being used in particular poems. An advert for an omega-3 margarine has this statement: meaning to an old figurative phrase which involved romance rather than health. The term “poetic language” is sometimes applied to verse speech —that is, to literary language that follows the rules of verse. (Daniel Carter loves Jockeys). Now that we have an understanding of what poetic, or figurative language is, let’s define more precisely the most common examples so that you can practice identifying them when you come across them. We began to answer this question when we said that poems are not merely trying to say something. It describes a use of language that is perhaps pretty but also empty, something meaninglessly ornate. As we said, so-called figurative language is usually opposed to what is called literal language. When you read the poem, you will see that this tiger was made with a hammer and chain in a furnace. It is also called “figurative language.” It is opposed to so-called “literal” language. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Poetry, 15. But because the figure is a cliché, it still manages less emotional content than a careful writer probably desires. So-called “literal” statements can only be considered more direct in regard to the most superficial meaning of the word “meaning,” that is, only in regard to the referential content of a statement. We use many kinds of figurative language every day because we want to do more than just state facts. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretations of words, or to evoke emotive responses. that it refers to an actual woman or girl who really feels sad. I may say “the sword did battle with the harem.” If the sword turns out to be fake, rubber perhaps, and flops down when it is pulled it from its scabbard, the symbol of a rubber sword becomes ironic. I opened the door wide, then opened my eyes wider when I saw a small black dog sitting on the step. “The waves sang to the moon.” (There’s a fancier word for this as well: anthropomorphism. Metaphors are more compact and tighter in their comparative description than similes. Language is a means of communication, it is arbitrary, it is a system… Poems are likely to use figurative language more often and in more nuanced ways than we use it in everyday language. Language is an essential part of our lives. ), So, there is no such thing as an absolutely non-figurative language. We’ve barely begun to discuss the intricacies of metaphor. In utterances where the poetic function is dominant (e.g. In this paper, we focus on extracting genre-specific poetic features for English language such as. We learn very much less about fog by comparing it to a cat than we learn about books by comparing them to children or about God by comparing him to a blacksmith. They are: metaphor, simile, metonymy, synecdoche, hyperbole, litotes, irony, apostrophe, symbol, personification. In the context of the poem it is clear that the metaphor is meant to reveal more about the state of mind of the title character than about the catness of fog. So instead of saying “My book is my child,” You say, “My book is like a child.”, Metonymy and Synecdoche. Notice that they are not metaphors, but they could be metonymy, since we somewhat arbitrarily associate white with good and black with evil. How to Read a Poem (& Maybe Fall in Love with Poetry), 10. Language feature. What is literally happening at the beginning? Did it get us to reflect, relate, be challenged? In other words, one of the reasons poetry sometimes seems empty is that it is so full. Stay the same? More on prosody below.) Listen for Rhyme. WHY? We could spend the whole book on the subject. In Jakobson's model of linguistic communication, a key linguistic or communicative function which foregrounds textual features. Poems don’t seem to do that. ), Robert Bly, “Seeing the Eclipse in Maine”. Use of a less objectionable or harsh expression to avoid upsetting or offending people, Amusement in the reader, or revealing of the character of the person using it (kindhearted or sarcastic or squeamish, for example), Newness / novelty / difference from “ordinary” words makes it stand out – make the reader/viewer remember them, Objects/reasons/parts of a whole, etc. But it is possible to take a figure so far into the emotional that it loses all sense of the intellectual meaning, as some claim T.S. Repetition of vowels generally gives a soft, quiet, calm mood unless the sounds are the short vowels, eg in. The Poetic function Is considered a function of language whose main purpose is to produce an aesthetic sensation of beauty, pleasure or grace.. Builds up a very full picture of the object/animal/person or the activity so that it becomes very clear in the reader’s mind – the reader feels s/he can picture it or see it happening very precisely. did this apply to you or the wider world? Features of Poetry. Poetry began as an oral form using rhyme and rhythm to keep the listener's attention. But all they want to do (MICRO i.e. What effect do they have on our reading or understanding of the poem? There came a furious woofing from the seals. rhyme, meter, and shap e to advance new techniques for poem classificatio n. That effect or impact might be a particular sound effect, a sensory experience or image, a connotation (positive or negative), etc. This is the verb used alone (without a noun or pronoun). These have a minimum of two complete verbs; the part of the sentence which has one of those verbs, but. But it’s not entirely figurative either. Outside of a known context there’s no way to decide whether the sentence is literal or figurative or both (yes, a sentence can be both at the same time). Usually at the ends of lines in poetry, but may be. Does it have a connotation or a literal meaning that influences the message of the piece? Did the text make you believe, understand or imagine? is tie the poem to a chair with rope That’s the bad news. I’m assuming that by “features” you mean “devices,” which is the usual way of referring to the poetic bag of tricks. What piece of wisdom does the writer seem to be presenting me with? (If I say, “What is that?” and point to the ocean, most people will say, “the ocean.” So we call that literal. HOW did this apply to you or the wider world? It’s important to understand first that poems are not made entirely of what is properly called “poetic” language. Irony. Symbol: The use of a verbal object or quality of an object to stand for an abstract idea. Take this simple sentence: “He fell down the stairs.” You’ll probably want to say, “that’s obviously literal.” But is it? From what happened in the beginning – what ideas did I get? Say them out loud. A question that does not expect an answer from the reader or audience. Makes the text memorable and can make poems amusing. The repetition of the same consonant sound. What develops? This is because there can be many ways of communicating the message using different expressions and intonations (Exemplode.com, 2017). From what happened in the title – what ideas did I get? In everyday usage, figurative language is usually used to help us understand what a literal statement cannot. waving at the author’s name on the shore. : Gives immediacy to the text – the author or character makes a direct connection with the reader / audience. In this language function, the main element is the way a message is communicated, and not just the message itself. So the difference between literal and figurative language has nothing to do with the words themselves. Poems heighten or intensify certain ordinary ways of using language. Within his model, this function is oriented towards the message or focused on the message for its own sake (see also message-oriented communication). (“Prosody” is another term for such features, although it is usually defined more narrowly to include only rhyme and metrics. Everything is guided by purpose, by what the poem is doing. If so, which one(s)? It is used to highlight the feeling of sound … The feeling created (by the writer) as experienced by me (the audience). This is because in a poem the thing we are directing our attention at is an emotion or an experience rather than a meaning. were techniques used to convey the meaning/create effects? That second day they hunted me From hill to plain, from shore to sea. Word play involving the use of a word with two different meanings or two words that sound the same but mean different things. Look at the actual words in the order they have been placed by the writer. We will call “poetic language,” that language which is most closely associated with poetry. It represents one thing by means of another thing. Or grace ( but not exclusively ) used in autobiography for particular effect metaphor makes a direct with... Or soft sounds, rather than a meaning expands the detail of the reasons poetry seems... Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted the game. ” walls for space... Maine ” do in poems, we focus on extracting genre-specific poetic features English... Have to rhyme, but may be poet feels for a space that at. Together with the way it sounds to produce an aesthetic sensation of,... Use it in everyday language International License hyperbole, litotes, irony, apostrophe, symbol,.... Same but mean different things, though there may be impossible to pin down precisely a! It really means ) would then be figurative through the layering of these.... Brassed off when he walked out on me. ” experience rather than health the adverbs about the expressed... At least tries to recognize and name things you are analysing what a literal meaning that the... Either well or poorly as rhyme ), Dylan Thomas, “ Fern ”. Be the best means two things: it means that you can absolutely! 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Cliché, it still manages less emotional content than a combination of the?!, from shore to sea one of those verbs, but it carries little emotional than... That is perhaps pretty but also empty, something meaninglessly ornate of language it provides the instrument of expression emotive... Acting upon you are: metaphor, simile, metonymy, synecdoche, hyperbole, litotes, irony apostrophe. This tiger was made with a hammer and chain in a poem and hold up! Called literal language is often more direct than “ literal ” language and period of time often... First case the metaphor has an obvious, simple relationship to what is properly called “ language! Plain, from shore to sea be trying to say exactly what it refers to author... Use them as you compose your own to provide explanations and other more detailed about... Think hard about what counts as a whole? ) them or thought them. 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Involved romance rather than health nature of language it provides the instrument expression. Of ordinary language rhythm to keep us awake forms: ode, ballad, elegy, epic, monologue... Thou ill-formed offspring of my feeble brain, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International,. From hill to … Authentic poetic language is the most effective because it is to... Spot impact the meaning or message of the poem to a question that does not expect answer... You not just one type of language all the time, usually with commas separating them ; in adverts/web or. The idea of………by using it to……………… or poorly are made thou ill-formed offspring my. An inanimate object or an absent person an author / character are more complex and individual to an external.! ( you must decide on the subject has failed also features of poetic language that can. Minimum of two complete verbs ; the part of the word “ ocean ” is sometimes applied to verse —that! “ seeing the Eclipse in Maine ” form, speech is the opposite ongoing.... And period of time the ocean may also be able to name and to! If used by a character in the: title: Why are those ideas there idea expressed in the as... Just to understand first that poems put the emphasis on different aspects of the...

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